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English Grammar - Lessons in Modal Auxiliaries

Lessons in Modal Auxiliaries-

Modal Auxiliaries:

The modal verbs are - shall, will, can, may, must, should, would, could, might, ought to, need, dare.

Pay Attention: Most of the modal verbs are always followed by the first form (bare infinitive) of verbs in Active Voice, and be + 3rd form of the verb in Passive Voice.

A.. ‘Will’ and its past form ‘Would’

It (will) is used with second and third persons (you, thou, he, she, they, all the nouns).

in Future Tense -

1. Time will decide what will happen in coming days.
2. What will you decide in my absence?
3. The best students of our college will be awarded by the manager.
4. The problems regarding the condition of the poor will be discussed later on.
5. Who will feed you if you don’t work?
6. Nothing will be done if we await the right time.
7. I asked my friend when he would go to Mumbai.

Pay Attention: Conjunctions showing time and condition are not followed by ’shall’ or ‘will. Such conjunction are - if, till, provided, in case, supposing, unless, until, till, as long as, so long as, as if, as though, before, when, as soon as, since, while, after. The past form of ‘will’ or’ shall’ (would, should) is also not used.

1. Will you take your bath before you leave for your office?
2. As long as atom-bombs continue to be made, threats of war will remain.
3. The students will continue their agitation till the Government takes its decision back.
4. We shall hold a meeting after the students have gone home.
5. As soon as we discard ‘laziness’, we shall find that we shall be able to do a lot.

Business Affairs Important Questions QB - 1

1. Etihad Airways is the name of the national airlines of…

a. Afghanistan
b. Iraq
c. Kuwait
d. United Arab Emirates

2. Who was the chairman of the twelfth finance commission of India?
a. MS Ahluwalia
b. C Rangarajan
c. Rakesh Mohan
d. Bimal Jalan

3. General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC) is chaired by…
a. N Rangachari
b. RK Joshi
c. MK Garg
d. Ashok Lahiri

4. This site/search engine was in the news in January 2005 as it had plans to offer the famous libraries of the world online. Can you identify the name of the engine in question from the given options?
a. Yahoo. com
b. Google.com
c. Altavista. com
d. AOL

5. Aramco is one of the world’s biggest….
a. Cement firm
b. Steel firm
c. IT firm
d. Oil firm

6. Mukand Steel is the key company owned by…
a. Birlas
b. Bajajs
c. Tatas
d. Ruias

7. ‘Cottons’ is the name of garment collection by….
a. Madura Garments
b. Century Textiles
c. Indigo Nation
d. Raymond

8. Servo is an oil brand from….
a. HPCL
b.IOC
c. BPCL
d. None of these

9. Progeon is the name of the BPO arm of this Indian software giant. Identify it from the given operations.
a. Wipro Technologies
b. Infosys Technologies
c. HCL Technologies
d. Polaris Softwares

10. According to the Union Budget 2005-2006, which of the following represents the outlay for the defence sector?
a. Rs. 66,000 cr
b. Rs. 77,000 cr
c. Rs. 83,000 cr
d. Rs. 90,000 cr

11. ‘Mahila card’ is an international debit card meant exclusively for women. This card belongs to the stable of …
a. ICICI Bank’
b. UTI Bank
c. Induslnd Bank
d. Canara Bank

12. Which of the following represents the limit of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the construction sector?
a. 49 per cent
b. 66 per cent
c. 74 per cent
d. 100 per cent

13. Who is the chairman of IDBI?
a. M. Damodaran
b. VP Shetty
c. PP Vora
d. KV Kamath

14. You would associate Corp Kisan Card with …
a. Canara Bank
b. Corporation Bank
c. ICICI Bank
d. HDFC Bank

15. Itz Cash, a pre-paid card, belongs to the stable of…
a. Tatas
b. Essel group
c. Essar group
d. None of these

16. Who among the following is the CMD of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)?
a. VP Sinha
b. b. C P Jain
c. AK Purwar
d. PS Shenoy

17. ‘Aapka Fayda’ is the punch line that you would associate with….
a. Sahara Samay
b. NDTV India
c. CNBC TV 18
d. Zee Business

18. ‘Data One’ is the name of the broadband service of ….
a. Reliance Infocomm
b. BSNL
c. MTNL
d. Tata Indicom

19. Food-World, Giant, Health 8′ Glow and Music World are all retail outlets of …
a. Pantaloon
b. RPG
c. Shopper’s Stop
d. HLL

20. Sarthak Behuria is the chairman-cum-managing director of…
a. ONGC
b. lac
c. BPCL
d.HPCL

Answer Key:

1. d. United Arab Emirates
2. b. C. Rangarajan
3. b. RK Joshi
4. b Google.com
5. d. Oil firm
6. b. Bajajs
7. b. Century Textiles
8. b. 10C
9. b. Infosys Technologies
10. c. Rs. 83.000 cr
11. c. Induslnd Bank
12. d. 100 per cent
13. b. VP Shelly
14. b. Corporation Bank
15. b. Essel Group
16. b. CP Jain
17. d. Zee business
18. b. BSNL
19. b. RPG
20. b. 10C

Business Affairs Important Questions QB - 2

1. Mat expands to…

a: Medium Advisory Tax
b. Minimum Accounted Tax
c. Minimum Automated Tax
d. Minimum Alternate Tax

2. This company was i.n the news in march 2005 as ‘U’ was planned to be its new logo. Can you identify the name of the company from the given options?
a. P&G
b. HLL
c. Nestle
d. Dabur

3. What is the expected GDP growth rate in 2005-2006, according to the Union Budget 2005-2006?
a. 6 per cent
b. 6.1 per cent
c. 6.3 per cent
d. 6.9 per cent

4. Identify the indirect tax from the given options.
a. Wealth Tax
b. Gift Tax
c. Sales Tax
d. Corporation Tax

5. Which of the following represents the expansion of ‘R’ in RFID?
a. Regional
b. Radio
c. Recorded
d. Reliance

6. This bank, in collaboration with NGOs, launched the ’social card’ for those people who want to contribute to the welfare of the society but either do not have time to do so or do not know which cause they would like to support. Can you identify the name of the bank in question from the given options?
a. Canara Bank
b. SBI
c. Punjab National Bank
d. Bank of India

7. Kishore Biyani, who is considered India’s largest retailer owns….
a. Shoppers Stop
b. Pantaloon
c. West Side
d. RPG Enterprises

8. The year in which the World Bank was incorporated in the UN system was….
a. 1994
b. 1946
c. 1947
d. 1949

9. The United Nations named the year 2005 as…
a. Year of savings
b. Year of investments
c. Year of micro finance
d. Year of macro finance

10. The name of the Air India’s budget airline, that was launched in April 2005, is …
a. Air l.ndia Aviator
b. Air India Express
c. Air India Smarty
d. Air India Genie

11. Which of the following represents the expansion of ‘T’ in ‘TIN’?
a. Trade
b. Tax
c. Transmission
d. Total

12. Which of the following personalities is the author ofJeh: A Life of JRD Tata?
a. RM Lala
b. BK Dadabhoy
c. Dwijendra Tripathi
d. BK Karanjia

13. Which of the following represents the worth of the deal in which Adhikari brothers sold the SAB TV brand to the Sony TV in March 2005?
a. $7 million
b. $10 million
c. $13 million
d. $15 million

14. Which city hosted the G-20 meet in the third week of March 2005?
a. Lahore
b. Sau Paulo
c. New Delhi
d. Phuket

15. Identify the incorrect match. Automobile company Car Model
a. Fiat Automobiles Panda
b. Skoda Automobiles Fabia
c. Honda Automobiles Civic
d. All of them are matched properly

16. This personality was the FORBES Asian Businessman of the year 2004. Can you identify him from the given options?
a. Ratan Tata
b. Anil Ambani
c. KV Kamath
d. Nusli Wadia

17. According to a survey conducted by Hewitt Associates, which of the following companies was adjudged as the best employer of 2004?
a. P & G India
b. NTPC
c. Bharti Televentures
d.TCS

18. Awaz is the Hindi business news channel that belongs to the stable of …
a. NDTV
b. CNBC TV 18
c. Zee News
d. Sony TV

19. ‘Make your own road’ is the catchphrase that you would associate with….
a. Chevrolet Tavera
b. Tata Safari
c. Tata Sumo
d. Ford Endeavor

20. The maximum revenue to the government comes from….
a. Service tax
b. Custom duty
c. Excise duty
d. Income tax

Answer key:

1. d. Minimum Alternate Tax
2.b.HLL
3. d. 6.9 per cent
4. c. Sales Tax
5. b. Radio (RFID: RadioFrequency. Identification)
6. b. SBI
7. b. Pantaloon
8. c.1947
9. c. Year of micro finance
10. b. Air India Express
11. b. Tax(TaxlnformationNetwork)
12. b. BK Dadabhoy
13. c. $13 million
14. c. New Delhi
15. d. All of them are matched properly
16. a. Ratan Tata
17. d. TCS
18. b. CNBC TV 18
19. b. Tata Safari
20. c.. Excise Duty

How To Attempt Data Interpretation / Reasoning Section

Tips :

1. Don’t be afraid of the unfamiliar. Maybe you have never seen such charts before; do not panic and approach with an open mind.

2. Practice from a lot of sources. Look at different graphs and charts and see how data is represented.

3. Note that there are no purely DI or purely Reasoning Questions. All the questions require some amount of Reasoning.

4. Look at different newspapers and also the sites on the Internet where you find graphs and charts. An exposure to different types of charts is essential.

5. In Reasoning, do some puzzles from varied sources. Several sites on the Internet post puzzles regularly. Doing these from a variety of sources will help.

6. Do a number of section tests before you start doing full-length tests. Time yourself and stick to the time limits strictly.

7. Rather than doing conventional sums, rely on logic and develop a reasoning mind. In the exam, there is no particular type of question that will be repeated, but most questions can be done by using logic.

8. Do the questions with low weight at the outset. This will give you the confidence to attempt the more difficult questions.

9. Develop your strategy by appearing in a number of mock tests. Do not change it at the last moment by listening to friends or others.

10. Finally, DO NOT panic. Even if you are scoring well in the mock tests, be prepared for something that you may not have seen before. Learn to keep control even if the paper is formidable; usually it is not.

Some tips for Vocab

1. Read:
This is the best in quality as one sees the usage and the context. However, it’s not a direct method for vocab improvement and the ROI in terms of new words learnt for an hr put in is low unless one’s vocab is less than average. This is assuming the average Indian English newspaper. Plus, there is additional bother of looking up a dictionary every time.

2. Vocab books like Norman Lewis and Rosenbaum:
These books look at the roots of the words, origins etc. Thus, each word has a history etc. very easy to pick up certain words and also helps to guess the meaning of a word using its roots even the one had never seen it until that moment. Downside, there are only a few words with a story. Also the roots can give misleading results at times.

3. Word lists:
Every coaching/prep book has them. Very direct approach and has a high ROI. But it looks a monumental task to finish a few thousand words. Can be done with regular effort and tools such as flash cards. The key is to learn the usage and not to memorize the words.

One can choose depending upon one’s needs. If you find it difficult to get started, option 2 is probably the best. If you’re pretty strong already reading and combining through word list may be a good way. If your English is particularly weak, read and do the word lists. Option 2 can be a support.